Guest blogging is frequently considered as one of the finest strategies to produce high-quality backlinks (SEO) and traffic to your blog. We’ll walk you through exactly how to guest blog post (strategically) and substantially develop your blog as a result in this comprehensive guide to guest blogging. Guest blogging will almost certainly be one of the finest tactics to use if you want an increase in targeted traffic to your site, improved search engine rankings, and a stronger reputation in your niche… all for free. It may appear to be a pipe dream (especially if you’ve only recently begun your blog), but it’s not. Through guest blogging, you may accomplish all of these things in a remarkably short period of time and without spending a dollar. Let us now discuss how to guest post.
What exactly is guest blogging?
Guest blogging, also known as guest posting, is the process of writing an article for someone else’s site in order to expand your brand, receive exposure to your target audience, generate traffic, and establish natural backlinks to your own blog. Although there are rare exceptions, a guest post will nearly always require you to write a unique piece of material that you haven’t previously written on your blog or anywhere else, and you’ll almost always be writing for a site with a greater audience than your own (which is one of the major benefits of guest blogging). You also don’t have to pay to be a guest blogger. If you are requested to pay for a post, it is a sponsored post, not a guest post. Some blogs will even pay you to guest blog on their site. So, what is the catch with guest blogging? There isn’t one, but everyone still benefits.
Guest Blogging 101: 10 Simple Steps to Landing a Guest Blog Post (2023)
Every month, around 70 million blog posts are published. It’s becoming more difficult to reach (and keep) a huge blog audience. Thus, guest blogging benefits the host blog that publishes your guest post because they receive a free piece of content that they do not have to produce themselves or pay a writer to assemble. You have your name, words, and links to your own blog clearly displayed to potentially thousands or more visitors. We’ll go into putting links in your guest blog articles in greater detail later in this tutorial, because they’re highly beneficial to boosting your blog’s SEO authority. The readers of the blog for which you just guest blogged benefit as well, because they get to read a terrific piece of content that likely gives a different perspective than they’re used to. Guest writing is a win-win-win situation in which everyone benefits. Guest blogging is by far the biggest return investment you can make for driving traffic to your blog and building a returning readership over time. Now, let’s go into my ultimate guest posting guide and discuss how to get a guest blog article (for SEO and traffic) this year.
1. Complete your guest blogging requirements (first)
Some would-be guest bloggers are concerned that they must have a lot of blogging expertise or a large following of their own before anyone will consider publishing their writings. But it is just not the case. There are only two essential conditions if you want to start guest blogging today and have your work published on someone else’s blog:
- You must be able to write effectively. Be honest with yourself: if you’re not extremely fluent in English, or if you struggle a lot with spelling and punctuation, you might not be ready to get into guest blogging yet. If you do decide to go, find a buddy who can assist you with some editing, or consider hiring a professional editor to help polish your writing before pitching a guest post.
- You must choose your host blog carefully. This entails selecting a realistic blog or publication that accepts guest pieces. And, while it may seem apparent, going for the biggest site or newspaper in your niche on your first try will only let you down and create the wrong expectations when you’re just starting out with guest blogging. This method allows you to obtain vital experience before pitching the blog of your dreams.
Guest blogging does not require a large personal brand to be successful.
I didn’t have a personal brand or reputation when I initially started guest blogging
What I did have was the ability to produce a blog post that told a fascinating tale, drew people in, and helped my host’s blogging goals. Having a growing writing skill that you’re continuously working to enhance, as well as the willingness to be persistent with your outreach efforts, will go a long way toward ensuring the success of your guest blogging initiatives.
On top of that core writing talent, I began by pitching startups that I’d either already worked with in some manner through my day job (as a content marketer at CreativeLive) or that were at least familiar with my employer’s brand.
I used the most powerful instrument at my disposal (working for a globally famous startup) to network my way into guest blogging opportunities at other organizations. You may not be in the same situation as I was when I began guest blogging, but challenge yourself to make the most of the resources you have.
2. How to Find the Best Blogs for Guest Posting
If you Google “blogs that accept guest posts,” you’ll get a ton of results.
Spoiler alert: This is not the ideal way to begin guest blogging.
After all, you don’t need 150 random blogs that accept guest posts to get started… only one high-quality blog to begin with, and you can build from there.
Instead, consider the blogs you already read that cover the same or a comparable topic to what your own site discusses. These are excellent blogs to pitch because you are already acquainted with their style and the types of content they post.
When deciding which blog to pitch for a guest article, look for one that:
- You already have some form of relationship with. Perhaps you’ve commented on the blog before, conversed with the writer on Twitter, or even had a blog with a similar name. Beginning with a simple connection can make it easier to get your guest post pitch reviewed.
- Is bigger than yours, but not outrageously so. Aim for a blog that is five to ten times larger than your own. Aim for a blog with 1,000 subscribers if you have 100 email subscribers. When you’re new to guest blogging, aiming for blogs (like Forbes) that are a thousand or more times the size of your own is a bit ambitious.
- Is relevant to you. While there may be some benefits to writing for a blog about cats when your blog is all about gadgets, there won’t be much audience crossover, so you shouldn’t expect to see much of a return on your time investment.
- Has a writing style that is similar to yours. It’s fine to change your style to suit the blog you’re guest posting on, but if you’re normally very “out there,” with lots of off-color jokes, and the blog you’re writing for is more conservative, you’ll either find that (a) they reject your post because your style isn’t a good fit, or (b) you change your style to suit them—and readers who click through to your blog have a vapor attack. Both scenarios result in an unfavorable outcome.
- You’re pleased to be linked with them. Avoid guest posting on sites that have been heavily condemned in your niche (unless you want to demonstrate your support for them), and stay away from blogs that do not reflect your personal moral or ethical standards. If you’re an ardent liberal, for example, writing a blog post forcefully supporting conservative ideas makes little sense. The content will not appear legitimate, and you will most likely regret your decision in the future. Consider your fit from a design standpoint as well—if the blog you’re considering guest posting on has an old and outdated blog style, but you take a bold and contemporary approach with your thoughts, is that the correct location to publish your work?
- Provides a do-follow link. This is usually the case, but read the guest blogging instructions carefully to ensure that your bio link (or in-post links) are “do-follow” rather than “nofollow” (since a nofollow link will not aid your blog’s SEO efforts). If nothing in the guidelines states otherwise, go to a previous guest blog post, scroll to the bio, right-click on it, and select “Inspect” (in Google Chrome) to see the HTML code for that hyperlinked text sample. If the word “nofollow” appears in the HTML description of the link, it is a nofollow link. If it doesn’t specifically specify “nofollow,” you’re good to go.
Inspect a link by right-clicking on the hyperlinked text you want to examine and selecting “Inspect.”
The control panel will appear on the right side (or bottom) of your browser window.
Then, pay particular attention to the highlighted text that specifies the nature of the connection you’re inspecting.
You’re looking for any use of the phrase “nofollow” in the description once more. So, if it isn’t listed there, the link is regarded “dofollow,” which means it passes SEO benefits to the destination link (for example, a post you’re promoting on your own blog).
Of course, you must first ensure if your chosen blog permits guest posts—and, if so, whether or not they allow clickable links back to your own work.
Consider the following:
- Various authors appearing on the blog (extra points if they are introduced as a “guest blogger” or “guest post”). This does not necessarily imply that the blog will accept unsolicited guest blogging posts, so don’t assume the floodgates are open.
- A “Guest Posting Guidelines” page. In a moment, we’ll look at how to find this page, as many blogs don’t make it very visible.
- A reminder about guest writing on the Contact or About pages. Some bloggers will include a statement here indicating whether they are currently accepting or rejecting guest contributions.
Before submitting a pitch, please read the guest blogging guidelines
Don’t expect a blog that claims it doesn’t accept guest posts to create an exception for you. You’ll want to spend your valuable time elsewhere, no matter how brilliant your blog post idea is.
This is also true if a blog states that guest posts are only accepted by invitation—in that case, you can potentially contact the blogger (if you already have a relationship with them) and ask if they’d be willing to look at a blog post outline to get a feel for your style, or go through a mutual connection to get an introduction.
3. Create fantastic guest blogging ideas
Many new guest bloggers come up with a slew of creative ideas first, then hunt for the proper blogs where those ideas might fit in.
That, in my opinion, is not the ideal way to approach guest blogging.
Instead, come up with ideas that are great for each and every target blog you’re going to contact… not ideas that are a reasonably acceptable fit for a hundred different sites. Consider bespoke rather than off-the-shelf. To come up with a guest blogging topic that would perform wonderfully for your potential site, you need first conduct keyword research using a free service. Then, to craft your keyword-backed pitch to the editors you’ll be contacting, follow these steps:
- Read through the most recent posts on your desired blog. If you’re not a regular reader (or if you used to read the blog but haven’t in a while), you should catch up on the type of information they’ve published recently. If your target blog frequently covers blogging costs and web hosting-related topics, you could pitch them on a guest post that covers more niche blog topics like the best cheap web hosting plans, a review of the top monthly hosting plan options on the market, or an exploration of the free hosting plans available—all of which could ladder up to a larger piece they already have about the overall best web hosting plans for their readers.
- Make a note of these posts. What topics have they discussed? How long are the blog postings on average? Do their posts tend to be high-level and strategic, or are they more tactical in nature? Are the blogs intended for beginners or experienced users? All of these can help you fine-tune your ideas.
- Examine the blog’s coverage categories, if they are provided in the menu. You should pay attention to categories that haven’t had many (or any) posts in a while. These are potential targets for content that fills a “gap” in the blog. Keep in mind, though, that a lack of recent postings in a specific area could indicate that the blog’s focus has shifted.
- Make a list of potential ideas. Don’t limit yourself to one or two blog article ideas; aim for at least five. It doesn’t matter if some of them aren’t fantastic. You want to keep going until you come up with an idea that you believe would be a good fit for that site.
- Make your headlines perfect. Make sure you learn how to write a headline for your guest post in a manner and tone that your target site will appreciate. If not, they’ll either deny your submission (since your guest post doesn’t sound like a good fit) or significantly alter it before publishing.
4. Find and follow the guidelines for guest blogging
Most blogs that allow guest posts will have specific requirements that guest bloggers must adhere to. Before submitting your papers for consideration, look for these… and carefully follow them. The following are the most likely guest post guidelines:
- Linked from the About, Contact, or Guest Post Submission pages of the blog
- Linked to from the blog’s sidebar or footer
If they aren’t in either of those areas, search the site for “guest post guidelines”, “write for us”, “submit a post”, or “guest posting”. To perform this site search, enter the term plus site:[nameoftargetblog.com] into Google, for example, “guest post guidelines site:growthbydaniel.com” to get more precise results.
Guest post guidelines differ from blog to blog, but most typically address the following topics:
- The type of content they accept or reject. This is generally obvious (for example, they don’t want stolen work or things you’ve already written someplace else), but the guidelines may also contain topics they’re particularly interested in or topics they don’t want right now.
- Whether they want an idea and an outline, or a whole draft. It’s best to keep to what the blog requests (though most will not reject you just because you provided the wrong thing).
- Who should you send your proposal (or draft) to? Rather than the blog owner, this may be an editor, an assistant, or even a submission form.
- How to format and distribute your guest article. Some sites prefer Word documents, while others prefer Google Docs, and a few still require raw HTML (though this is becoming increasingly rare). You could be instructed on how to use headings.
Following the instructions is essential for successful guest blogging
There may possibly be further instructions (i.e. some blogs will ask you to submit your guest post using a specific form, or to use a specific subject line for your email to them).
5. Discover how to pitch your guest blog article
Some bloggers will gladly accept a full draft of your guest blog post, while many will require you to “pitch” the concept first. This is where effective blogger outreach comes into play.
This usually entails sending them an email in which you introduce yourself and your credentials briefly, provide your suggested guest blogging idea or a wonderful blog topic, and define what your piece will be about.
6. Create a guest blog post that your host will love
No host blog will offer you a firm “yes” based just on your proposal.
Even if your guest blogging concept was fantastic, they need to see that you can provide a strong piece of content that is relevant to their target audience, suits their style, and helps them achieve some form of strategic content marketing goal.
It goes without saying that when you submit your draft guest post, it should be your best work—especially if this guest blogging opportunity is on a site that can genuinely transform your life.
Your guest blog post should be good enough to be published on your own blog
One way to consider how you should feel about the quality of your guest post is to hold it up to the level of being a fully ready, top-notch item you’d cheerfully publish on your own site.
Yes, you refer to your guest post submission as a “draft” in your pitch, but this is because you want the host blog to feel free to request substantial revisions if they believe you haven’t struck the target. However, in your opinion, this should be a finished piece of work that is ready to publish as-is.
In addition to performing an excellent job with the post itself, you should ensure that:
- You’ve made your post as useful to readers as possible. This might include giving examples, adding crucial blogging ideas from the pros, referring to additional reading, quoting industry experts, compiling a free template, or doing whatever else you can to make your guest post truly useful and beneficial. (Don’t go too far: if your host blog typically publishes 800 word items, you don’t want to send them a 3,000 word monster like my aggregate of 25 honest Bluehost reviews, unless that’s already been cleared by their team).
- You’ve made it as useful to the host blog as possible. That entails not only creating outstanding material, but also ensuring that it benefits your host blog in some way. Normally, this means linking to other pillar content on their blog (try to link to at least two or three of their pieces), but it could also include advertising their products or proposing readers sign up for newsletters.
In any case, if you can successfully tie your guest blogging efforts into a clear win for the host blog and their followers, you’ll have a far better chance of getting a proposal accepted.
7. Include connections to your own content in a tasteful manner
Almost all host blogs will allow you to build your own bio, in which you can put at least one (often numerous) links to wherever you like.
If they don’t let you put even a bio link to your own blog in a guest post, I’d avoid guest blogging for them because you’re probably not getting anything in return for providing a good piece of (free) material for them. In my perspective, guest writing should be a win-win-win situation.
We’ll go through bios in more detail later, but in terms of the body of your guest post, you might be wondering if it’s okay to link to your own content.
Can you include a link to your own blog in a guest blog post?
Yes, you can usually link to your own content from a guest post as long as it’s done tastefully and has a purpose other than simply giving oneself a random link. However, there is some nuance to it.
Most sites will accept a few links to your own content as long as they are:
- Relevant: Avoid including a link to anything that is only distantly linked to the topic of your guest post. This is one of the reasons why it’s critical to select a host blog that is actually relevant to you, since there will be natural possibilities to generate excellent connections to your own posts. For example, if I wanted to include a link to my side blog, I’d create a guest post about something food-related.
- High-quality: If you link to a sloppy post littered with mistakes, the host blog will most likely remove the link or replace it with a connection to another site on the same issue.
- Non-competitive: You may be guest blogging for a site that is somewhat competitive in terms of the themes you both cover. For example, if you provide a link to your own guide on how to earn money blogging, but the host blog already has a piece targeting the same keyword phrase, they’ll likely remove your link and replace it with a connection to their own post. Avoid embarrassing situations by verifying each of your links ahead of time for competitive items on their blog.
- Value-added: If you’re addressing a topic in your guest post that doesn’t have enough space to elaborate on, connecting out to an eBook you created (that does) is a win-win-win for the host blog, their readers, and yourself.
How many times in a guest blog post may you link to your own blog?
There is no hard and fast rule about how many links to your own content you may include, but anywhere between 2 and 4 (if your guest blog post is between 2,000 and 3,000 words) is usually about right.
You may also wish to include links to other credible blogs and media in your niche. If you solely link to your own stuff, it will appear self-serving (and even if the host blogger leaves all your links intact, it may come across as biased to readers).
Important: Some blogs mention in their guidelines that you should not link to your work at all if you will be guest blogging for them—or at the very least, they discourage it.
If that’s the case, and you’ve already agreed to guest blog for this site—and you do want to include a link—flag it to the host blogger (e.g., with a note in the Google Doc) and make it plain that you’re glad for them to remove the connection if required.
Above all, you don’t want it to appear as if you’re attempting to sneak a link past them.
As I’ve already stated, if you’re unsure whether you’ll be able to obtain a link or two from the host blog in question (and that’s the major purpose of your guest blogging campaign), I’d propose taking your guest post elsewhere rather than letting the content go to waste.
8. Create a creative bio for yourself as a guest blogger
Your bio is the one spot where you may link to almost anything that supports your blog SEO strategy.
Though some blogs still have special criteria for bio links, such as not allowing you to link directly to your own items, using an affiliate link, or directing viewers to a site that is directly competitive with your host blog.
How to Write an Effective Guest Blog Post Bio
Your guest blogging bio should be simple but meet the following four goals:
- Include your whole name (or your blogging pseudonym)
- Be relatively brief (around 100 words is common, but check the guest blogging guidelines, as some blogs have strict word limits on bios)
- Be written in the third person (“Jane Doe is…” rather than “I am…”)
- Include one backlink to your blog or website (most commonly your homepage, but not always)
9. What to do after your guest blog article has been published
Almost all host blogs will tell you when your piece is expected to be published, so make sure you’re available on that day to share your guest post and respond to comments.
If the publish date doesn’t work for you, just let them know—they’ll typically be pleased to modify it.
Once your guest post is published, there are three things you must do to ensure its success (for everyone):
1. Respond to any comments that come in
Responding to comments on your guest article is usually encouraged (if not expected). It’s good looking ahead of time at how many comments each post typically receives on the blog, so you know how much time you’ll need to make up for this on the day your piece goes live.
When responding to comments, keep in mind that you are a representative of the blog to readers. Don’t use foul language (unless it’s completely OK on the blog in issue), don’t become upset or defensive, and contact the host blogger if you don’t know how to respond to comments.
2. Distribute your guest blog article to your network
Even if you have a modest social media following, you should still share your guest article with your followers. Getting your work published on a larger site will typically impress your existing followers as well as maybe sending some traffic to your host blog (which is a wonderful thing to do).
When sharing your piece, if possible, tag the host blog’s account—they may wind up retweeting you, and at the very least, they’ll notice that you made an attempt to share your content. Just make sure you’re sharing on the social networks that are most appropriate for your blog specialty, such as Twitter for startup material or Instagram for travel blogging.
3. Thank you to the host blogger (and pitch your next guest blog post)
Email the host blogger a few days after your piece goes live to thank them for having you as a guest on their site. Make this email as personal as possible—you may remark how pleasant and friendly their readers were, or tell them that your blog traffic has increased significantly.
If your first guest post was a success, now is the time to pitch your next one. Once you’ve had one guest post published on a blog (especially if it was well-received and you were easy to work with), landing a second one is nearly always easier.
Simply type something like this:
I’d be delighted to write for you again! I was wondering if you’d be interested in writing a post about [title/topic]? If this sounds like a good fit for you, I’d be happy to email you an outline or a full manuscript.
If the host blog does not accept many guest posts, or if you are not yet ready to pitch and create another post, you can write something like this:
Thank you so much for having me on [blog name]! Your readers were very kind and welcoming, and it was thrilling to see my message live on your site. I’d like to write for you again—would you be interested in another guest post pitch in a few months?
Unless something went terribly wrong during or after the publication of your content, the host blogger is almost going to answer yes.
10. Ways to get even more out of your guest blogging
When you write your first guest post, just getting it published is a huge accomplishment.
However, once you’ve gained some guest blogging experience, there are a few things you can do to get the most out of each new guest post that goes live.
1. In your guest blogs, include links to other noteworthy bloggers
One simple (but frequently ignored) strategy to leverage your guest posts is to link to the work of other noteworthy bloggers. If you want to create a relationship with one, or simply support out a blogger you admire, this is an excellent method to do so.
That backlink will be quite valuable to them, especially if you write for a popular blog. They are also likely to receive some referral traffic as a result of the content.
After you’ve contacted the blogger whose content you included in your guest post, you may measure their reaction and even pitch them on having you as a guest blogger, which will result in even more high-quality links (and traffic) back to your blog.
2. Write many guest blog posts at the same time
While it takes a lot of effort, getting multiple guest articles (ten or more) on a variety of blogs in your area in a short amount of time can be a fantastic method to spread the word about your identity and blog.
People will forget about you practically as soon as they finish reading one of your guest posts. When people read four or five postings from you in a single week, they’ll start paying attention—and, if you’re putting out regular material, they’ll probably subscribe to your email list.
Getting ten guest posts out there in a week or two is significantly more likely to help your site develop than writing ten posts over the course of ten months.
3. List the top blogs for which you’ve written on your own website
Many bloggers include a “as seen on” or similar feature on their home page or another visible site.
This is an excellent spot to list the blogs or publications for which you’ve written—using their logos usually works nicely. Most sites will be alright with you utilizing their logos for something like this because it helps their own reputation, but if you’re concerned, you can always email and double-check.
After you’ve gained some guest blogging experience and have written for some major blogs, displaying their names or logos on your site shows new visitors that you’re credible and worth reading.
Troubleshooting: four frequent guest blogging issues resolved
As with any blogging attempt, there will be obstacles, challenges, and blogging mistakes along the way. But that’s fine. We’re all here to learn and grow together.
Hopefully, the host blogger will adore your guest post draft as soon as they receive it and will respond with a “This is perfect!” I plan to release it on Monday.”
However, there is a good probability that you will encounter one of the following hurdles on your guest blogging journey:
The first issue with guest blogging is that you do not receive a response to your pitch
Bloggers are busy individuals, so it’s typical if you send a pitch and don’t hear back after a week or two.
If it’s been two weeks or more, you should double-check that your proposal was successfully delivered.
You might send the following email:
Hello [First Name],
I was wondering if you received my guest article pitch from a few weeks ago? Just in case it got lost, here it is again:
Please let me know if you believe it would be a good fit.
Try using one of my favorite blogging programs that handles automatic email follow-up reminders (such as Gmail’s Snooze Reminders).
You might also try messaging the blogger on Facebook or Twitter.
However, do not do this in public since it may appear forceful and pressing.
Problem #2 with guest blogging: You don’t hear back after sending your draft
You may receive a positive reaction to your pitch only to have the blogger become silent once you send over your draft.
It can take a long for busy bloggers to evaluate your guest post, especially if they’re undecided about accepting it or considering adjustments. Don’t be too eager to follow up (but also don’t wait several weeks or months in case they’ve forgotten).
If you haven’t heard anything after a week or so, I’d suggest writing a follow-up email like this:
I was wondering whether you had a chance to read the draft of my guest post? (Don’t worry if you don’t – I know you’re super busy!) If you want anything changed or added, please let me know.
If you still haven’t received an answer, wait another week and try again.
After that, you’re free to take your guest post elsewhere and pitch it to other blogs that would be a good fit for it.
Problem #3 with guest blogging: The host blogger wants a lot of modifications made to your draft
In some situations, the host blogger may wish to publish your piece with significant alterations.
Sometimes the host blogger will make the modifications; other times, they will request that you rework your draft. It’s uncommon to be requested to undertake substantial rewrites for a guest post (the blog would most likely outright reject if they believe it requires that much work), but you may be asked to add sources, tweak a paragraph or two, include more details, and so on.
It is up to you at this point to answer.
In most circumstances, accepting the adjustments makes sense because you’ve already engaged in this guest blogging adventure—even if it involves a little extra effort for you. If you take the final step of editing your post after it has come this far, it is almost certain to be published.
However, if there are particular adjustments that you want to revert, it is usually acceptable. If the host blog requests so many modifications that you believe your guest post will no longer be something you’re proud to put your name on, you can withdraw it entirely.
Problem #4 with guest blogging: The host blogger removes your links
What if the host blogger removes all (or most) of the connections to your own blog?
This most likely implies that you went a little too far in linking to your own material, and as long as at least one or two of your connections remain, it usually makes sense to go forward with the guest post anyway—since that’s still a significant benefit.
However, if you wish to push back on a specific link or two that you’d want to see restored, send an email to:
I observed that you removed the link to [page]. I know it’s my own work, but I thought it’d be great background information for your readers. Is it okay if we reintroduce it into the article?
Be prepared for a “no,” but as long as the link isn’t immediately competing with information on your host blog’s site, I recommend at least attempting.
While you can remove your guest post from consideration at this point, doing so will most likely hurt your chances of ever obtaining a guest post on that blog again. If you’re okay with it, no problem—just move on.
Most bloggers will expect you to deliver a guest post in exchange for a bio link (and possibly another link in the body)—but with no assurance of additional links inside the post.
It is customary not to include your own affiliate links in your content (and doing so will likely come across as clueless, presumptuous, or greedy). If you mention specific products/services that have an affiliate program, the host blog may use affiliate links of their own, so you must be okay with that.
It’s an incredible feeling to have your guest blog article published on a website you’ve respected and followed for years.
You can progress to larger blogs once you’ve gained some experience.
Consider having your content published on some of the best blogs in your niche (or even on some of the world’s leading magazines).
But first, let’s bring this guest blogging guide home…
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Daniel Eriksson works as a full-time blogger and affiliate marketer. Learn how to scale your impact at startup speed with Daniel and 500,000 monthly readers on GrowthByDaniel.com. Daniel formerly managed digital marketing teams for startups and e-commerce businesses.